7 Manage Linux Mint

In Chapter 7, Manage Linux Mint, we will cover four important topics:

7.1 Backup Your Settings and Programs

7.2 Backup Your Documents with USB and Mega

7.3 Find and Remove Duplicate Files

7.4 Manage Workspaces and Roll Up Windows



Key Point


We have three kinds of documents on our computer. These are programs, documents that do not change and documents that do change. Because we have three kinds of documents, we need three different backup strategies.

7.1 Backup Your Programs and Settings

Whether your computer has an old fashioned disc spinning drive or a more modern solid state drive, it is a fact that none of these drives will last forever. If you only use your computer a few hours a day to check social media, your computer hard drive may last ten years or more. But if you use your computer to do research and prepare documents and images for books and websites, and you keep your computer on 12 or more hours a day, seven days a week, your hard drive may only last four to five years. When it suddenly dies, you will be left with the black screen of death. This horrible event is most likely to occur right when you are wrapping up a major project that would have made you a million dollars – if only your computer had lasted a few days longer.

Even if you have a brand new computer, it does not take much of a security breach for some rogue program or email virus to crash your operating system. If your hard drive is OK, you can reinstall your operating system. But all of your documents may be wiped out. Having learned this lesson the hard way, many folks make a backup of their files – only to learn later, when they try to restore their files, that the backup was also corrupted! Or they only backed up their files once a year – thus losing 12 months worth of work when the backup was restored. Or they store the backup on an external drive that got roasted in a house fire. If you job depends on your computer, then it is time to take backing up your computer as a serious matter.

In this article, we will review how to make backups of our programs, settings and documents. These backups will allow us to quickly restore our programs, settings and documents in the event of a crash of our operating system or a failure of the hard drive inside of our computer. To better understand why we need more than one backup, let’s take a quick look at our Nemo File Manager.


When you open it, all you usually see are your documents – hopefully well organized inside of a series of folders. Click on File System and you will see all kinds of System files. These normally require Open as Root to modify.


Then go back to your home folder and click View, Show Hidden files. Then scroll down to see another huge list of hidden folders and hidden files. These all have a dot in front of their name.


These are typically configuration files that hold all of our personal settings for browsers and other programs. Because we have three different sets of files, we need at least three different strategies for backing up and restoring them all.

Three Different Backup Strategies

We have three kinds of documents on our computer. These are programs, documents that do not change and documents that do change. Because we have three kinds of documents, we need three different backup strategies. Our personal documents that rarely change are easy. We can simply copy them periodically into an external USB drive and then use the USB drive to restore them. For our most active files, that we are working on and changing every day, we will set up a syncing folder set to an encrypted cloud service called Mega. They allow up to 50 GB for free and are the only fully encrypted cloud service. We will cover how to do this in a later section.

The harder part is backing up our Programs and System settings. Mint provides us with two methods to copy our programs and system settings. The first is an ongoing and syncing snapshot program called Timeshift. The second is the Mint Backup Tool. Unfortunately, the Mint Backup tool does not really back up all of our programs. And the Timeshift tool may not work in a new installation due to conflicts in the computer UUID numbers. In fact, most backup solutions have problems that only emerge when you try to restore your system using the backup program. The question we should ask ourselves is not what is the easiest or fastest tool to back up our system, but what is the most reliable way to restore our system if we need to rebuild it from scratch?

Historically, the answer has been to make a complete copy of your system with an image creation tool such as Clonzilla Live. Then use the ISO tool to restore your entire system. The problem with this approach is that there are a lot of complex steps in creating this clone. One wrong step and your Live Stick might be corrupted without you even knowing it until your restore process fails.

An easier more recent solution is to make snapshot copies of your system with a tool like Timeshift and then restart your operating system to apply the copy or snapshot. The problem here is that this only works if the operating system was not corrupted and the UUID number of your system has remained the same.

What we need is a simple and dependable solution that does not rely on complex imaging or a fully functioning operating system or even the same computer ID number. After having researched more than 20 different backup solutions, we will therefore recommend a simpler approach that takes a radically different path to the summit of a fully restored system.

We will break the Restore Process into five separate steps:

First, use a special tool called Aptik to copy all of our programs and system settings into a special backup archive. This file can then be stored on both an external USB and in the cloud. This is a very simple process that takes just a couple of clicks of our mouse and about ten minutes of our time.

Second, in the event of a complete hard drive and or operating system failure, use a Live Mint ISO Live USB to format our computer taking all the drive space just like we were installing Mint on a new computer. This is a simple and well traveled and reliable pathway.

Third, install Aptik onto our new system and transfer the backup programs archive to our new Nemo File Manager. Again, very simple. Very quick.

Fourth, direct Aptik to our backup folder and click Restore. Wait about ten minutes. Problem solved. All of our programs are not only reinstalled – a process than normally takes several days – but even better, all the customizations we have made to our programs are fully restored. As just one example, I typically make more than two dozen modifications to LibreOffice including adding special color palettes. Aptik is able to restore all these settings and files just the way I set them up.

Fifth, add back your documents and images from your USB storage and or Cloud Syncing system and we are off and rolling again. The entire process takes less than one hour and is extremely reliable. Welcome to the future of computer backups! Now that you have a better idea of why we recommend this new approach, let’s take a closer look at how to back up and store programs and settings with Aptik.

#1 Use Aptik to back up Your Programs and Settings

To install Aptik, simple open the Mint Software Manager. Then search for Aptil. Then click Apply. Alternately you can open a terminal and copy paste the following commands:

sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:teejee2008/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install aptik

Then start Aptik from the Mint menu and enter your password.

Here is the initial screen: 


First, we should create a backup folder in the file system folder of our computer. Right click on the screen and clicking Open as Root. Then right click again on Add a new folder. Then name it backup. Then in Aptik, click on Select which opens in the File System folder. Then click on our new backup folder.


Next, Click on One Click Settings to review the default settings (which we can change if we want).


The two tasks not shown are Home Directory Data and Scheduled Tasks. Click OK to close this window. Next click on the Backup icon to the right of Installed Software. This will bring up a list of programs that will be backed up by clicking on Downloaded Packages. If some of your programs were installed as DEB packages, you may get this warning.


Open our file manager and open the Apps folder. Open as Root.


Then select and Drag all of these into the Backup list window and they will be installed along with the regular programs. Once we have moved all four programs over to the big window, we will see the following very long list of packages that will be copied and placed in a special archive folder. Here is the first half of this list:


You can uncheck any programs you do not want to back up or copy to our new installation of Mint. Some very large programs – especially VirtualBox – should definitely be de-selected or even uninstalled before making your backup.

Programs that are a part of our Linux Mint distribution may not appear in this list. For example, Firefox is installed by default with Mint. Then click on the One Click Backup button. It will take about ten minutes to copy all of your programs, software sources and settings to your backup folder. The screen will end by stating “Backup completed.” Click Close. Now open the backups folder to see what is in it. There are 11 items.


Right click on Properties to see the file size. It is 4.3 GB. We will then copy the backup to our USB External Drive and/or to our Cloud Storage Drive (which we will discuss more in the next section). Once you have copied the backup folder to an external or cloud drive, delete it from the Mint File System to save space.

#2 Use a Live Mint USB to restore your computer

You may even have the original Live Mint USB you used to install Mint on your computer in the first place. If not, format a USB stick and go to the Mint website to download the latest stable ISO of Mint. Then use Unetbootin to turn the Mint ISO into a Live Stick. Then restart your computer with the USB Live stick. Go through the normal installation process.

#3 Install Aptik on your New Mint Installation

When you are done installing Mint, remove the live stick and add Aptik by going to the Mint Software Manager and searching for Aptil. Then click Install. Alternately you can use the following commands to install Aptik on your new Mint installation:

sudo apt-add-repository -y ppa:teejee2008/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install aptik

Then copy paste the Aptik backup folder from your USB or cloud storage to the File System folder in your new Mint installation.

#4 Point Aptik to your backup folder

Then click on One Click Restore. When Do you want to continue comes up type in Y, then Enter. If an error warning appears, click Skip All to bypass it. Here is the final screen that will appear after a few minutes.


#5 Add Back your Documents and Images

Using the Documents backup we will discuss in greater detail in the next section, add these folders back from either your external USB drive or your Cloud Storage system. This process is amazingly fast but not entirely perfect. You may need to reinstall any applets you had in your side menu and any desklets you had on your Desktop. Also you should open each program on the new system to make sure it works. Some dependencies may not have been carried over and will need to be reinstalled. Even some programs such as Opera and Gnome web browsers may be missing and need to be reinstalled. Other programs, such as GUVCView may be listed in the Mint Menu but may not work. These will have to be uninstalled and reinstalled. An excellent way to see this system in action is to use Virtual Box to set up a new virtual Mint 18.3 system and then add Aptik and your backup folder to it through the Virtual Box Shared folder. Then click Restore. You will be amazed at how much this new virtual system will match your existing computer.

What’s Next?

Now that we have covered how to back up and restore our programs, in the next section, we will review how to back up our documents both with an external USB drive and with a cloud service.  

7.2 Back Up Documents with USB and Mega

The many Windows ransomware cyber attacks caused a significant disruption to many MS Windows users, including large businesses and public services. Obviously, that disruption could have been avoided simply by switching from Windows to Linux. But the disruption could also have been avoided if computer users had adequately backed up their data so it could have been recovered safely – instead of being forced to pay a ransom and hope that the hackers would decrypt their now useless computers.

In the last section, we created a backup system for our programs. In this section, we will create two separate backup systems for our documents. First, we will review external USB options. Second, we will cover how to set up an encrypted syncing cloud service.

USB External Drive Options

The number of documents, images and videos you have as long as your future plans will determine whether you should get a small USB Thumb Drive or a bigger USB Hard Drive.


Thumb drives are now available up to 256 GB – which is more than most people will ever need – for as low as $60. However, if you have stored a lot of images and or videos or plan to store a lot of images and videos in the future, you may want to consider getting a full size USB hard drive as these can store up to 4,000 GB (4 Terabytes). Both Seagate and Western Digital offer 1 to 2 Terabyte models for about $100.

Either way, you should consider backing up your documents to your external drive at least once per month. Keep a couple of backups on your external drive and then delete older backups as you add newer backups.

Back Your Documents Up with an Encrypted Cloud Service

There is an obvious problem with storing monthly backups on an external USB drive. What happens if your computer goes down three weeks after the last backup? You will lose three weeks worth of work. This is why we also need a cloud syncing service that creates automatic daily backups of our most active document folders. There are many other benefits of using a cloud service – including being able to share large files. But the main reason we need a cloud service is to set up an ongoing document backup process. We will use Mega because they are the best encrypted cloud service. They also are integrated with Linux Mint Cinnamon.


Mega provides free storage space of 50 GB and 10 GB of data transfer per month. Mega is also much more secure than Dropbox. Your data is encrypted end to end. This means that nobody can intercept your data while in Mega storage or in transit between your computer and the cloud. Mega also provides a public link sharing of files or folders, allowing you to collaborate and share you projects with friends and colleagues. Mega also provides a Sync tool so you can automatically update documents from your home computer to the Mega cloud drive. You can sync any folder from your computer to any folder in your Mega Drive. You can even sync any number of folders in parallel. MegaSync offers Live Encrypted Syncing. This means that you can access and work with your data securely across different locations and devices. It's always on and fully automatic.

Here are a couple of comments about cloud storage services:
“I use Dropbox, and something in it is vulnerable to virus as files started disappearing off my computer a few weeks ago.”

“Google Drive, SkyDrive and Dropbox? Why are we even still discussing these three? I may as well upload my data to the NSA directly. Client side encryption and non-US storage are minimum conditions to consider any cloud service.”

We agree. To get your free Mega account, go to the Mega.nz home page.


Then click Create an Account.


Here is the initial screen for your Cloud Drive file manager.


Click on the M in the upper left corner to reach the Mega dashboard:


Click on the Cloud to copy data to Mega


Click Folder Upload and load the Courses folder. The following screen will appear.


We will skip downloading Megasync for now and just load our Courses folder. Click Continue anyway. Once you are done loading your folder to the Mega Drive folder, which may take quite a while, we will next install the Mega Sync tool. The installation and usage of the Mega Sync tool is pretty easy.

Install MEGAsync in Linux

Get the MEGASync package from the following link. Just choose your Linux distribution (Linux Mint):



This will put a DEB install file in your Downloads folder. Next get the DEB install file for the Nemo extension from the following link:http://www.webupd8.org/2014/09/unofficial-megasync-nemo-extension.html

You will then have two DEB files in your Downloads folder.


Transfer these two DEB files to where you want to store them. Then right click on the Megasync DEB file and click the top option which will be installed with the DEB package manager.


Once the install process is complete, you can launch MegaSync from your Mint Menu Applications by clicking on the MegaSync menu item in the Internet category.


This will bring up the Login window.


Click Login which will normally bring up your Mega Drive File Manager. But the first time, it will bring up the MegaSync Set Up Wizard. Choose Install type. We will only Sync some of our folders. So we will choose Selective Sync.


Click “Next.”


To choose a different folder to sync, click Change for the Local Folder and choose the folder in your File Manager you want to sync. The folder on the Mega end can be left alone or can be changed to match the folder name of the synced folder on our home computer.


This will allow you to use a special sync folder in your Cloud Drive folder for our most active files and have other folders in your Cloud Drive that are not synced to your Home computer file manager for folders and files you rarely use. Click Next.


Click Finish. MegaSync is now listed in your Programs Menu. It is also listed in your side panel so you can simple click it to access your online cloud storage. Hover over the Red Circle M and you will see that it is scanning and syncing the two folders right now. When it is done syncing, the red icon will indicate “Up to Date” when you hover over it. Next right click on the Nemo Mega Extension to install it. This extension requires that MegaSync be installed first. Once you have installed the MegaSync Nemo Extension, restart your Nemo File Manager. Your Mega Synced folder will now have a red M circle to the left of the folder in your Nemo File Manager.


If you have more than one synced folder, there will be red M circles to the left of each of them.

Sharing Folders and Files with Others
While you can share your synced Home folder, this would require installing Samba which is not that secure. It is better to create a link to a synced or non-synced folder in your Cloud Drive. So go to your Cloud Drive and right click on the folder or file you want to share.


Then click Get Link. You can then copy this link and email it to others that you want to collaborate on the project with. To log out of your MegaDrive account, click on the Top Right Menu. Then click Log out.

Mega: Not just free secure back up and document sharing – but also free secure video conferencing!

Mega offers free secure video conferencing that allowing you to have secure user-controlled encryption of text, voice and video communication with your MEGA contacts. You can hold encrypted text, voice and video chat sessions with a single contact or text chats with a group of contacts through your browser. To get started with MEGAchat, invite your contacts to open a MEGA account, then use the 'Contacts' icon on the left menu to start chatting with them. You can use the contact verification feature to achieve the highest level of confidence that your contact is indeed the person you intended. Select a contact in the left pane on the Contacts tab, then click the Verify button (showing in the right pane) and confirm their Authenticity Credentials through a secure channel or by direct communication before clicking the Approve button to complete the verification. Just make sure you are using a modern, technologically compatible browser providing sufficient HTML5 support.


Go to your Contacts panel by clicking the Person icon on the left-hand side sidebar. Then click on the contact you want to talk to. Right-click and select Start Audio Call or Start Video Call from the context menu. When the browser notification pops up, allow MEGA to access your microphone and camera. Your call will commence.

Incoming calls: Click the green Audio Call or the blue Video Call button to answer your contact's call. Ensure both parties are online. Click your status button (top line, right) to change it from Red (Offline) to Green (Online). Make sure your system camera and audio are working (i.e. allowed in browser settings).

What’s Next?

We will next look at how to get rid of duplicate files.

7.3 How to Find and Remove Duplicate Files

One drawback of syncing folders is that you may inadvertently end up with a bunch of duplicate files. In this article, we will explain how to find and remove these unwanted documents. It is possible to compare and delete files simply by using two file managers which are open at the same time and then comparing the files and folder sizes and dates on files in each file manager in order to find and eliminate duplicate files and folders. However, this will not help you compare minor differences inside of two files. In this article, we will review how to use a free tool called Kdiff3 to find and remove duplicate files in Linux Mint. Kdiff3 is one of three free tools in the Linux Mint Software Center that uses a graphical interface to help you select, compare and remove duplicate files one by one. The other two are Fslint and Komparor. We will review Kdiff3 first because it is the most accurate tool. It can compare the differences between three files at a time and most important, it has the best documentation of the three tools.

There are also “command” line tools for deleting duplicate files in batches. Command line tools use computer coding commands that you type into a keyboard rather than a graphical interface where you click on buttons. Command line tools are therefore not really appropriate for the general public. In addition, command line tools often lead to false positives (duplicates that are not really duplicates). It is possible to accidentally delete important files with command line tools – and even crash your computer. We will therefore show you the slow and safe way to delete duplicate files from your computer. To download Kdiff3, go to the Mint Software Center and type kdff3 into the search box. There are two different versions of Kdiff3 listed. The smaller version kdiff3-QT does not have as many features as the full version. We will therefore install the full version.


KDiff3 is a file and directory (folder) difference and merging tool which can compare as many as three directories (or folders) at the same time (instead of two). Kdiff3 shows the differences line by line and character by character using customizable color coding. It does not merely compare file names or file sizes (which is what most other tools do). Kdiff3 provides an automatic merge function and has an editor to solve merging conflicts.

You can copy from any of the three file versions being compared and paste what you want into the merge result window. In addition to copying and pasting text, you can also select and drag text into a different window. Kdiif3 can also simulate merge operations, do synchronization and even produce backups.

In KDiff3, a merge need not be simply one file overwriting another. This makes Kdiff3 better than most merging programs. With other merging programs you have to choose between two files that each might have important edits. Whichever file you choose, you lose the changes on the other file. With KDiff3, you could get to keep the changes on both of the original files. Kdiff3 also has good documentation, which is available in several languages. To open Kdiff3, go to the Mint Menu, Applications, Programming and click on it to open it.


Comparison Targets Selection Screen (the smaller box shown above)
With the KDiff3 start screen, you can enter two (or three) directories to be compared – or two or three files to be compared simply by clicking on the File or DIR buttons – which will then browse to any file or directory (folder) in your File Manager. If for A a file is chosen, then a file comparison starts.

If for A a folder is chosen, then a directory comparison starts. If A selects a file, but B, C or the output selection is a directory, then Kdiff3 uses the file name for A in the specified directories.

If the Merge box is selected, then the Output becomes editable. But you do not need to give the Output a file name until you save the final merged file at the end of the comparison, merging and editing process.

The Configuration button opens a dialog box where you can set options before running your comparison. The Configuration Options have seven tabs in a side menu. The first tab is fonts. We will set the default font for Liberation Mono Regular 12.


The Color Tab allows you to choose the colors for Options A, B, C, Conflict and several other differences. We will leave this tab set for the defaults


We will also leave the Differences tab and the other tabs set for the defaults.

As an example, we will now compare and merge two files which are both called Chapter 1. We will have the newer file be Option A and the older file be Option B.


We will leave the Output box blank. Once both files are selected, click OK.


The input files are shown in the top row of the Editor screen with a white background which is split with Option A on the left and Option B on the right. The Output is shown with a yellow background in the second row.

We now know that both files not only have the same file name and same file size (what we would learn from other programs) but we are assured that both files are absolutely identical. We can therefore delete the older file and keep the newer one. After clicking OK, the program warns us that some of the information in the file is not text but rather images. Linux Mint comes with different tools for comparing images. But for now, we will just compare text and assume that the images are the same.

When deleting files, you can have two versions of the file manager open at the same time to visually check that the names and file sizes match. However, a faster way to check several files that are in nearly identical folders is to let Kdiff3 compare the folders. Below are three nearly identical folders:


Click on Configure then click on Directory. Select the Option for Trust size and modification date, but use binary comparison if the date does not match. It warns us that this option is technically not safe. But it is good enough.


Then click OK and OK.


Since there are no differences, we can delete the entire older folders. At the very least, check Recursive Directories if you want to include subdirectories in the comparison, enter file patterns to show what files to include or avoid, and set the file-comparison mode (from binary, meaning the files are compared on a byte-per-byte basis, to “trust size,” which just checks whether the file sizes differ). Finally, select Synchronize Directories (why isn't this option checked by default?) so the directories will end up with the same contents after all comparisons. The results of the comparison are shown in a single display, with columns (A, B, and C) marking which files are in which directory. At the upper right, three graphic check boxes allow you to hide files that are the same (so you can concentrate on different files) or just show the new files on one of the directories. The Operation column shows you what needs be done to synchronize files. If you click on any file marked “Merge (manual),” you will get a line-by-line comparison of both files, showing which lines were added, deleted, or modified. It's up to you to do the merging or to decide which file should be the good one. (The Diffview menu entry allows you to configure the comparison view.)


If you right-click on the Operation column, you get an easy way to decide which operation should be done. When you're done selecting what is to be done, use the Directory menu entry to confirm your choices.


What’s Next?

Now that we now how to delete duplicate files, let’s look at how to use Mint Windows.

7.4 How to Use Mint Workspaces and Rollups

Workspaces are extra desktops or virtual monitors that you can rotate between. Workspaces are a great way to organize your work when you have a bunch of windows, applications and documents all open at the same time. If these were all on the same desktop, you would have a hard time moving between them all. By having several desktops, you can divide the documents and applications among them so there are only a couple of documents or applications on any given desktop.

To have more than one desktop in the Mate version of Linux Mint, you need to add a tool called Compiz - and unfortunately, this tool can create all kinds of problems. Linux Mint Cinnamon however, integrates Workspaces directly into its operating system - making the whole process much more stable. Linux Mint creates four workspaces by default, but you can add more and switch between your workspaces pretty easily. The workspaces in Linux Mint are persistent. Once created, these workspaces will be always there even after the next boot.

Linux Mint Cinnamon doesn’t have a workspace switcher by default. We will add a Workspace Switcher. Right click on the panel and select Add Applet to Panel. Then select Workspace Switcher and click Add to Panel. Workspace Switcher shows four boxes in the panel. Here is what it looks like with different applications open in all four workspaces:


If you need more than four workspaces, you can add them by right clicking on the Workspace Switcher.


You can also add a Workspace by clicking on Manage Workspaces - which will display a screen of all of your Workspaces. Then click on the plus sign on the right edge of the screen:


Activating workspaces will add some additional options to each window title bar’s context menu. Right-click a window’s title bar and you’ll find options for moving that window between different workspaces or making it appear on all workspaces. For example, open a new Libre Writer document. Then right click on the Title Bar at the very top of the document.


If we click Always on Visible Workspace, the document will move from one workspace to the next whenever we click on a new workspace.

The next issue is now that we have all kinds of windows open in four different workspaces, how do we remember which windows or applications are open in which workspaces? The solution to this problem is to add the Window Quicklist applet, so we can track which windows are open on which workspace.

Right click on the side panel, then add the Windows Quicklist applet. Note that the Window list applet is already active by default. But it only shows the applications open in the current Workspace.

By contrast, Windows list brings up a list of all applications organized by their workspaces. We will keep the Windows list applet because it is good for switching between a small number of Windows. But the Windows Quicklist Applet is a much better tool if you have several documents open at the same time. To view which documents and applications are in which workspaces, left click on the All Windows Icon in the side panel.


How to Snap and Edge Tile a Window in Linux Mint Cinnamon

Cinnamon also provides for Window Edge Tiling and Snapping. Edge-Tiling is the action of putting your cursor in the title bar and moving it to the side until the cursor reaches the side. A gray box called a HUD will appear “snapping” the window to the side half of the screen. To enable this, go to Settings, Window Tiling and click ON. To snap a window into place, move it towards a side. To unsnap a window, simply use the cursor to pull the window title bar away from the snapped edge. Cinnamon has long allowed edge tiling - but it was limited to just half the screen. Recently, Cinnamon added the ability to resize the document in its snapped position - making it narrower or wider. You can then snap a different window to the other side of the screen if you want it to completely fill the space remaining from the “snapped” window. You can then resize the snapped window until you're happy. The side of the other window will magically adapt to fit the remaining space. This will allow you to more efficiently use all the space on your desktop. Naturally, this works best by only having two windows per desktop. So if you have 8 documents or applications open at the same time, you might want to use all four workspaces with two documents or applications per workspace. Here is what this looks like after clicking on the Manage Workspace Expo button in order to display all four workspaces on the same desktop:


How to Use Mint Rollups

Add Shading to Roll Up and Down a Window

Have you ever had several documents open in order to transfer information between them - and wanted an easy way to show all of them and click between them while staying in the same workspace? One way you can manage multiple windows is by stacking the windows diagonally so that all the title bars are visible.


Click on a title bar to select that document window. The problem with this method is that if you are not very careful, some documents will completely cover other documents turning your desktop workspace into a complete mess. A better way to manage several documents in the same workspace is to use a feature that Mint calls Shading to roll windows up and down by double clicking on the title bar. Here is that this looks like:


This shading feature is not enabled by default. Instead when you double-click the title bar of a window, the default setting is to maximize the window into full screen. Since there's already a maximize button in the title bar, a better use for double clicking on the title bar is to use it to roll the window up or down. To make this change, click on the Mint menu, then click on the Settings icon. Then in the Preferences section, click on Windows. On the Title bar tab, for “Action on title bar double-click” select Toggle Shade.


Then close Settings and open one or more document to test Window shading. Now you can roll up a window by double-clicking its title bar, and roll it down by double-clicking the title bar again.

What’s Next?

In the next chapter, we will take a close look at improving Linux Security.